Symbol of Russian power, the Kremlin was established in 1156 when Prince Dolgoruski chose the site to build the first wooden fortress. A new and magnificent building was erected by order of Tsar Ivan III at the end of the 15th century. Under Stalin the fort was closed to the public, and some of the palaces were destroyed during that period. The complex only reopened to the public 2 years after Stalin’s death in 1955.
Palace of Congresses:
Bell tower of Ivan the Great
Cathedral of the Assumption (Uspenski Sobor in Russian) is one of the greatest churches in Moscow and one of the oldest in the Kremlin. The cathedral was built with white stone. It was used for the coronation of Princes and the funerals of the Patriarchs of the Orthodox Church.
The Cathedral of the Archangel (Arjanguelsky Sobor in Russian) was completed between 1505 and 1508, replacing the original wooden church, built in 1333. Burial place of the tsars and Grand Princes of Russia until the 17th century, the cathedral houses 54 tombs. It was also used to celebrate the victories of the Russian Army and the coronations, weddings and funerals of the Russian Tsars.
The Grand Kremlin Palace – is the official residence of the Russian president. It was built in the 18th century. In the middle of the 19th century, under Tsar Nicolas I, the building became the residence of the tsars’ families. Some of the rooms are now used to receive foreign diplomats.
Orużejna Pałata (the Armoury Museum)
St Basil Cathedral (Cathedral of the Intercession of the Virgin on the Mound) - situated on Red Square, it is Moscow’s most famous cathedral and one of the most emblematic monuments in the city. It is famous for its unique architecture, which seems to come straight out of a fairy tale.
The cathedral, which was built between1555 and 1561, was commissioned by Tsar Ivan the Terrible to celebrate the capture of the Tartar stronghold of Kazan.
According to the legend, Ivan the Terrible ordered that the architects who built the cathedral be blinded so that they would never create such a wondrous building again. No one knows whether it is true, but a few years after St Basil was built, the architect Póstnik Yákovlev worked on the construction of the Kazan Kremlin.
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour – is the largest Orthodox Church in the world. It is situated in the centre of Moscow, on the banks of the Moscova River.
It was built in the 19th century and has an interesting history.
According to one legend, the abbess of the Kobiecki monastery (Monastyr Kobieckiego) cast a spell on the church when she was expelled from the monastery and predicted that it would not last more than 50 years.
The construction went on for some considerable time and the cathedral was finally completed in 1883. In 1930, Stalin decided to build the Palace of the Soviets, and as the cathedral got in the way of the new building, he ordered that it be destroyed. The cathedral was dynamited in 1931.
The mausoleum is open four days a week, for a few hours.
The embalmed body undergoes a security check twice week and full maintenance is carried out every 18 months (the mausoleum is then closed to visitors).
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