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Moscow


 


Moscow

El KremlinMoscow’s most emblematic site, The Kremlin is home to the Russian capital’s most important monuments, as well as administrative buildings and the President’s official residence.

Symbol of Russian power, the Kremlin was established in 1156 when Prince Dolgoruski chose the site to build the first wooden fortress. A new and magnificent building was erected by order of Tsar Ivan III at the end of the 15th century. Under Stalin the fort was closed to the public, and some of the palaces were destroyed during that period. The complex only reopened to the public 2 years after Stalin’s death in 1955.


Several monuments are situated within the Kremlin, amongst which:

Troitskaya Tower:
Torre de TroitskayaTroitskaya Tower used to be the private entrance of Russian tsars and their families.  One of the two towers, Troitskaya Tower, is now open to the public: it is the tallest tower in the Kremlin with a height of 76 meters.  It was built between 1495 and 1499. Napoleon made a triumphal entrance through the gate of this tower when he finally reached Moscow in 1812.

 

Palace of Congresses:
The imposing building, 129 meters long, was commissioned in 1959 by Nikita Khruschev to hold Communist Party meetings. In the 1990s, the building was used for political meetings but it is now home to the Kremlin Ballet.

Bell tower of Ivan the Great
The tower was built between 1505 and 1508. In 1600, Tsar Godunov ordered that the tower be raised further and with a height of 81 meters, it campanario de Iván El Grandewas at the time the tallest building in Moscow. Next to the tower stands a bell tower, which houses 21 bells: the oldest, Uspenski bell, weighed 64 tons. In the 17th century, the Tsar bell was located behind the bell tower: with a weight of 200 tons, it was the heaviest bell in the world but it unfortunately collapsed during a fire and broke in 1701.

La Catedral de la AsunciónCathedral of the Assumption (Uspenski Sobor in Russian) is one of the greatest churches in Moscow and one of the oldest in the Kremlin. The cathedral was built with white stone. It was used for the coronation of Princes and the funerals of the Patriarchs of the Orthodox Church.

La Catedral del ArcángelThe Cathedral of the Archangel (Arjanguelsky Sobor in Russian) was completed between 1505 and 1508, replacing the original wooden church, built in 1333. Burial place of the tsars and Grand Princes of Russia until the 17th century, the cathedral houses 54 tombs. It was also used to celebrate the victories of the Russian Army and the coronations, weddings and funerals of the Russian Tsars.

El Gran Palacio del KremlinThe Grand Kremlin Palace – is the official residence of the Russian president. It was built in the 18th century. In the middle of the 19th century, under Tsar Nicolas I, the building became the residence of the tsars’ families. Some of the rooms are now used to receive foreign diplomats.

Orużejna Pałata (the Armoury Museum)
It houses the treasures of the tsars and Russian Princes. You will see fascinating exhibits, such as the crown that was used for the coronations and Catherine the Great’s coronation gown. The building is also home to the State Diamond Fund, a separate museum, where is exhibited a unique collection of jewels and diamonds that belonged to the Tsars and Russian Princes.

Arsenal
Its construction began in 1701 and lasted until 1736.  Weapons and ammunitions were kept there. It is not currently possible to visit the building, as it is one of the headquarters of the Kremlin guard.

Jardín de Alejandro Alexander’s garden
This wonderful garden was named after Tsar Alexander Ist.  The tomb of the Unknown Soldier, located within the garden, was unveiled in 1967.


Red Square
Moscow’s most famous square, originally designed to be the capital’s Plaza Rojamain marketplace, is 330 meters long and 70 meters wide: it is the third largest square in the world. It is considered the centre of the Russian capital and Lenin’s Mausoleum is erected here.

St Basil Cathedral (Cathedral of the Intercession of the Virgin on the Mound) - situated on Red Square, it is Moscow’s most famous cathedral and one of the most emblematic monuments in the city. It is famous for its unique Catedral de San Basilioarchitecture, which seems to come straight out of a fairy tale.

The cathedral, which was built between1555 and 1561, was commissioned by Tsar Ivan the Terrible to celebrate the capture of the Tartar stronghold of Kazan.

According to the legend, Ivan the Terrible ordered that the architects who built the cathedral be blinded so that they would never create such a wondrous building again. No one knows whether it is true, but a few years after St Basil was built, the architect Póstnik Yákovlev worked on the construction of the Kazan Kremlin.

La Catedral del Cristo SalvadorCathedral of Christ the Saviour – is the largest Orthodox Church in the world. It is situated in the centre of Moscow, on the banks of the Moscova River.

It was built in the 19th century and has an interesting history.
Tsar Alexander ordered that a church be built to celebrate the victory of the Russian Army over Napoleon’s soldiers in 1812.   The money for its construction was collected from Russian citizens, but it came to a halt in 1826 due to lack of funds.

According to one legend, the abbess of the Kobiecki monastery (Monastyr Kobieckiego) cast a spell on the church when she was expelled from the monastery and predicted that it would not last more than 50 years.

The construction went on for some considerable time and the cathedral was finally completed in 1883.  In 1930, Stalin decided to build the Palace of the Soviets, and as the cathedral got in the way of the new building, he ordered that it be destroyed. The cathedral was dynamited in 1931. 

The reconstruction of the church started in 1994. It was officially inaugurated in August 2000.

Lenin’s Mausoleum
The mausoleum of Vladimir Ilich Ulianov, better known as Lenin, is one of the most popular and interesting tourist attractions in the Russian capital.
The monument is located on Red Square and was built between 1929 and 1930.
Joseph Stalin’s body was initially laid to rest in the mausoleum, but was later moved to a site near the Kremlin wall.

The mausoleum is open four days a week, for a few hours.
You can visit it from Tuesday to Thursday, and at the weekend, from10 a.m. until 1 p.m.
Cameras are not allowed inside.

The embalmed body undergoes a security check twice week and full maintenance is carried out every 18 months (the mausoleum is then closed to visitors).

 


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